Thursday, May 3, 2007
A phonetic language means that the written words have same
pronounciation. But it is not in the case of English. It is not a
Phonetic language. It has no relation in spellings and
pronouncation of the word. Often we observe that the pronounciation is
beyond our expectations. There are several rules for a single character
to pronounce in certain circumstances. But we cannot also predict even
then, there may a prnounciation exist which we cannot even think about.
The thing that the spellings and sound patterns of English words is
different, makes it one of the difficult languages of the world. So
what we have to do then?
If we want to learn Spoken English we should concentrate then
pronounciation. Just forget the
spellings and try to learn the sounds. e.g. There are seven sounds for
a spelling combination "oug"
1. though (like o in go)
2. through (like oo in too)
3. cough (like off in offer)
4. rough (like uff in suffer)
5. plough (like ow in flower)
6. ought (like aw in saw)
7. borough (like a in above)
Another combination 'ght'
right (rite no /g/ and /h/ sounds)
There are some other examples also where the combination is same but
pronouncation is different in each case.
As:: We read.(ri:d)
We had read.(red)
Some more examples::
1. As use (/z/ instead of /s/ so uze)
2. As but (/ɘ/ instead of /ʊ/ so /bɘt/
3. As year (ear no /y/)
4. As guide (/gɘi:d/ no /u:/ or /ʊ/)
5. As up (/ʌp/ no /u:/ or /ʊ/ sounds)
& Phonology Difference
& Phonology Difference
describes the articulatory and acustic properties of human speech
sound. In Phonetics we study the sounds which could be produced by
human articulatory system. What kind of parts of body i.e. The speech
organs are invoved in it.What kind of sounds each one can produce.
is another term and branch of sound studies which deals with the sounds
of a specific language.
deals with all kind of human speech sounds irrespective of any language
of the world. Its independence from language enables every human being
to study it without getting any extra knowledge of some other language.
we have to bound ourselves in a specific language. Phonology
actually deals with the sounds selected in a language from a set of all
sounds which could be produced by the human articulatory system. For
example in English we study 44 selected sounds as for English
only instead of more than 100 sounds which can be produced by human
speech organs. Phonology thus makes the sound system of that specific
are only concerened with sounds not their combinations in Phonetics.
are some patterns of sounds which are used to make words. Phonology
also determines the permitted pattrens for a specific language. Pattren
may be said as a combination of vowels and consonants to make a word.
There are basically three
branches of Phonetics.
They deal with three basic
parts of human speech and listening system.
Phonetics is the branch which deals with the mechanisms
involved in a specific sound production, the tongue position, vocal
fold state and lip rounding etc.
studies the process of transformsion of one's sound into other's ear.
The kind of sound waves, the enviornment around where the communication
is taking place and may be energy spectrum and resonence of voice also.
third kind is called Auditory Phonetics, deals with
the listning process of the sound. We study here what is pitch of the
sound, is it louder or weaker in the ear etc.
Phonology has two branches. The
branch which deals with above mentioned functions i.e. Selection of
Sounds and Permitted Patterns is called Segmental Phonology.
is another branch with deals with other features. This kind is called SuperSegmental
Phonology. This branch deals with factors effects the sylleble in
connected speech. These factos can be stress, intonation, assimilation,
And Cosonants Difference
And Cosonants Difference
word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis,
phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language is that sound in which
there is no hindrance while uttering them. Simply mean there is not air
pressure produced in vowel production.
word consonant comes from Latin and means "sounding
with" or "sounding together."
Phonetics consonant is a sound in which production vocal tract comes
into such a position that it sufficiently causes audible troublence or
causes air to come out with a stop or friction.
are diffrerent classification methods of vowels.
on the basis of Tongue Position
are three kinds according to tongue position.
Vowels: Those which are produced by the raised front part of
tongue against hard palate.e.g /i:/
Vowels: Those which are produced by the raised back part of
the tongue in the direction of hard palate.e.g /u:/
Vowels: Which are produced at a postion inbetween front and
back of the tongue. e.g. /З:/
on the basis of Tongue Height
Vowels: Those in which tongue is raised close to the roof of
the mouth. e.g /u:/
Vowels: In which tongue has distance from roof of mouth./ǽ/
Half Close Half Open Vowels: In
which tongue is at a postion of ½ or 2/3
positions with respect to height.
on the basis of Lip Position
vowels in which lips are brought towards each other and pushed forward
while vowel porduction. e.g. /u:/
vowels when they are produced lips are spreaded and the lip corners
moves away from each other. e.g. /i:/
are produced when lips are neither rounded nor spread as in /З:/.
can be classified on the basis of Vocal Chord Vibration.
therir production the vocal chord vibrates and thus the sound uttered
is called a voiced sound. Like
are produced without Vocal Chord virbration.
can be classified by the manner of articulation.
air is stopped by articulatary system and then released as in /p/.
comes out with friction, our articulators tends to block air but it
doesn't blocked actually as there in /f/
compound of stops and fricatives. They have bothe the qualities.
And Nasal Articulation
uttrence of sound if velum is in such a position that air escapes from
Nasal cavitiy then we call such sound a Nasal as /m/.
When air is escaped through oral cavity (as usaully) the sound produced
is called Oral as /w/.
Bilibial: Lips are combined to pronounce
such sounds like /p/.
which lips and teeth both involded as in /f/ where upper teeth and lowe
lip produce the sound.
When toungue touches the teeth as in /θ/.
Alveolar reigon is involved along with tongue in such sound's
production. Just as /d/
A producion of sound from harad palate and alveolar region. As in /l/
Where toungue touches directly to the harad palate. Like in /j/
Veler section is involved as in /w/
are 20 in number from which 12 are monothongs and 8 are diphthongs i.e.
are 24 in number.