Thursday, May 3, 2007

Assignment 1(Phonology)

Phonetics
& Phonology Difference

Definition:









Phonetics
describes the articulatory and acustic properties of human speech
sound. In Phonetics we study the sounds which could be produced by
human articulatory system. What kind of parts of body i.e. The speech
organs are invoved in it.What kind of sounds each one can produce.


Phonology
is another term and branch of sound studies which deals with the sounds
of a specific language.


Scope:









Phonetics
deals with all kind of human speech sounds irrespective of any language
of the world. Its independence from language enables every human being
to study it without getting any extra knowledge of some other language.


Here
we have to bound ourselves in a specific language. Phonology
actually deals with the sounds selected in a language from a set of all
sounds which could be produced by the human articulatory system. For
example
in English we study 44 selected sounds as for English
only instead of more than 100 sounds which can be produced by human
speech organs. Phonology thus makes the sound system of that specific
language.


Sound
Pattrens:









We
are only concerened with sounds not their combinations in Phonetics.


There
are some patterns of sounds which are used to make words. Phonology
also determines the permitted pattrens for a specific language. Pattren
may be said as a combination of vowels and consonants to make a word.


Branches:









There are basically three
branches of Phonetics.


They deal with three basic
parts of human speech and listening system.


Articulatory
Phonetics
is the branch which deals with the mechanisms
involved in a specific sound production, the tongue position, vocal
fold state and lip rounding etc.


Acoustic Phonetics
studies the process of transformsion of one's sound into other's ear.
The kind of sound waves, the enviornment around where the communication
is taking place and may be energy spectrum and resonence of voice also.


The
third kind is called Auditory Phonetics, deals with
the listning process of the sound. We study here what is pitch of the
sound, is it louder or weaker in the ear etc.


Phonology has two branches. The
branch which deals with above mentioned functions i.e. Selection of
Sounds and Permitted Patterns is called Segmental Phonology.


There
is another branch with deals with other features. This kind is called SuperSegmental
Phonology. This branch deals with factors effects the sylleble in
connected speech. These factos can be stress, intonation, assimilation,
elision etc.


Vowels
And Cosonants Difference

Definition:









The
word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis,
meaning "speaking".

In
phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language is that sound in which
there is no hindrance while uttering them. Simply mean there is not air
pressure produced in vowel production.


The
word consonant comes from Latin and means "sounding
with" or "sounding together."

In
Phonetics consonant is a sound in which production vocal tract comes
into such a position that it sufficiently causes audible troublence or
causes air to come out with a stop or friction.


Kinds:









There
are diffrerent classification methods of vowels.

Classification
on the basis of Tongue Position

There
are three kinds according to tongue position.


Front
Vowels
: Those which are produced by the raised front part of
tongue against hard palate.e.g /i:/

Back
Vowels
: Those which are produced by the raised back part of
the tongue in the direction of hard palate.e.g /u:/

Central
Vowels
: Which are produced at a postion inbetween front and
back of the tongue. e.g. /З:/

Classification
on the basis of Tongue Height

Close
Vowels
: Those in which tongue is raised close to the roof of
the mouth. e.g /u:/

Open
Vowels
: In which tongue has distance from roof of mouth./ǽ/

Half Close Half Open Vowels: In
which tongue is at a postion of ½ or 2/3

positions with respect to height.

Distinction
on the basis of Lip Position

Rounded
Vowels:
Those
vowels in which lips are brought towards each other and pushed forward
while vowel porduction. e.g. /u:/

Spreah
Vowels:
Those
vowels when they are produced lips are spreaded and the lip corners
moves away from each other. e.g. /i:/

Neutral
Vowels:
They
are produced when lips are neither rounded nor spread as in
/З:/.


Consonants
can be classified on the basis of Vocal Chord Vibration.

Voiced:
While
therir production the vocal chord vibrates and thus the sound uttered
is called a voiced sound. Like


Voiceless:
Which
are produced without Vocal Chord virbration.

Consonants
can be classified by the manner of articulation.

Stops:
In which
air is stopped by articulatary system and then released as in /p/.

Fricatives:
Air
comes out with friction, our articulators tends to block air but it
doesn't blocked actually as there in /f/

Affricates:
The
compound of stops and fricatives. They have bothe the qualities.

Oral
And Nasal Articulation

Nasal:
During
uttrence of sound if velum is in such a position that air escapes from
Nasal cavitiy then we call such sound a Nasal as /m/.

Oral:
When air is escaped through oral cavity (as usaully) the sound produced
is called Oral as /w/.

Place
of Articulation

Bilibial: Lips are combined to pronounce
such sounds like /p/.

Libio-Dental:
Those in
which lips and teeth both involded as in /f/ where upper teeth and lowe
lip produce the sound.

Dental:
When toungue touches the teeth as in /θ/.

Alveolar:
Alveolar reigon is involved along with tongue in such sound's
production. Just as /d/

Palato-Alveolar:
A producion of sound from harad palate and alveolar region. As in /l/

Palatal:
Where toungue touches directly to the harad palate. Like in /j/

Veler:
Veler section is involved as in /w/


Number:









Vowels
are 20 in number from which 12 are monothongs and 8 are diphthongs i.e.
Compound Vowels.


Consonants
are 24 in number.



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